Protocol version 0 is the original “human-readable” protocol and is backwards compatible with earlier versions of Python.
Protocol version 1 is an old binary format which is also compatible with earlier versions of Python.
Protocol version 2 was introduced in Python 2.3. It provides much more efficient pickling of new-style classes. Refer to PEP 307for information about improvements brought by protocol 2. （从这个版本往后，性能有显著提高）
Protocol version 3 was added in Python 3.0. It has explicit support for bytes objects and cannot be unpickled by Python 2.x. This is the default protocol, and the recommended protocol when compatibility with other Python 3 versions is required.
Protocol version 4 was added in Python 3.4. It adds support for very large objects, pickling more kinds of objects, and some data format optimizations. Refer to PEP 3154 for information about improvements brought by protocol 4.
Encoding suitable as the contents of a Unicode literal in ASCII-encoded Python source code, except that quotes are not escaped. Decodes from Latin-1 source code. Beware that Python source code actually uses UTF-8 by default.