Online tutorials

Use the Index, Luke!  中文笔记)A Guide to Database Performance for Developers.

Let’s Build a Simple Database

Foundations of Databases

/builddatabase Build a distributed SQL database from the ground up.

/db_tutorial Writing a sqlite clone from scratch in C.

Below is a list of tutorials about distributed systems, you may found many useful pieces of information here.


Google big data:

  1. The Google File System
  2. MapReduce: Simplified Data Processing on Large Clusters
  3. Bigtable: A Distributed Storage System for Structured Data

Amazon Dynamo:

Dynamo: Amazon’s Highly Available Key-value Store

Google F1/Spanner:

  1. Large-scale Incremental Processing Using Distributed Transactions and Notifications
  2. Megastore: Providing Scalable, Highly Available Storage for Interactive Services
  3. Spanner: Google’s Globally-Distributed Database
  4. F1: A Distributed SQL Database That Scales
  5. Online, Asynchronous Schema Change in F1
  6. Spanner: Becoming a SQL System
  7. F1 Query: Declarative Querying at Scale

Amazon Aurora:

  1. Amazon Aurora: Design Considerations for High Throughput Cloud-Native Relational Databases
  2. Amazon Aurora: On Avoiding Distributed Consensus for I/Os, Commits, and Membership Changes

Google pubs: https://ai.google/research/pubs/

Data Structures and Algorithms for Big Databases By Michael A. Bender & Bradley C. Kuszmaul

Ark: A Real-World Consensus Implementation By Zardosht Kashef



Vitess Horizontal scaling and auto failover.

Citus 水平扩展 postgres 的方案

CockroachDB Ultra-resilient SQL for global business.(compatible with Postgres protocol).

TiDB TiDB is a distributed HTAP database compatible with the MySQL protocol.

Greenplum OLAP database based on PostgreSQL.

ClickHouse ClickHouse is a free analytic DBMS for big data(By Yandex).


  1. CMU 15-445/645 (FALL 2018) DATABASE SYSTEMSD
  2. Database System Implementation


  1. Gorilla: A Fast, Scalable, In-Memory Time Series Database
  2. Whisper
  3. prometheus/tsdb
  4. VictoriaMetrics/VictoriaMetrics long-term remote storage.
  5. Timescale 基于 postgres 的时序数据库


  1. A Journey From A Quick Hack To A High-Reliability Database Engine



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